Detecting Intracranial Hemorrhage Using Automatic Tube Current Modulation With Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction in Unenhanced Head Single- and Dual-Energy Dual-Source CT

posted by Julian L. Wichmann, M.D. | Nov 9, 2017


The purpose of our study was to determine diagnostic accuracy, image quality, and radiation dose of low-dose single- and dual-energy unenhanced third-generation dual-source head CT for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).

Material and Methods

A total of 123 patients with suspected ICH were examined using a dual-source 192-MDCT scanner. Standard-dose 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT; n = 36) and 80-kVp and 150-kVp dual-energy CT (DECT; n = 30) images were compared with low-dose SECT (n = 32) and DECT (n = 25) images obtained using automated tube current modulation (ATCM). Advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE) was used for all protocols. Detection of ICH was performed by three readers who were blinded to the image acquisition parameters of each image series. Image quality was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa. Radiation dose was measured as dose-length product (DLP).


Detection of ICH was excellent (sensitivity, 94.9-100%; specificity, 94.7-100%) in all protocols (p = 1.00) with perfect interobserver agreement (0.83-0.96). Qualitative ratings showed significantly better ratings for both standard-dose protocols regarding gray matter-to-white matter contrast (p ≤ 0.014), whereas highest gray matter-to-white matter contrast-to-noise ratio was observed with low-dose DECT images (p ≥ 0.057). The lowest posterior fossa artifact index was measured for standard-dose DECT, which showed significantly lower values compared with low-dose protocols (p ≤ 0.034). Delineation of ventricular margins and sharpness of subarachnoidal spaces were rated excellent in all protocols (p ≥ 0.096). Low-dose techniques lowered radiation dose by 26% for SECT images (DLP, 575.0 ± 72.3 mGy · cm vs 771.5 ± 146.8 mGy · cm; p < 0.001) and by 24% in DECT images (DLP, 587.0 ± 103.2 mGy · cm vs 770.6 ± 90.2 mGy · cm; p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed between the low-dose protocols (p = 1.00).


Low-dose unenhanced head SECT and DECT using ATCM and ADMIRE provide excellent diagnostic accuracy for detection of ICH with good quantitative and qualitative image quality in third-generation dual-source CT while allowing significant radiation dose reduction.


Authors: Scholtz JE, Wichmann JL, Bennett DW, Leithner D, Bauer RW, Vogl TJ, Bodelle B.

Full text available at: AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Feb 28:1-8.

Follow us
  • RSS Feed

This website is for medical experts only, read more here.
© Spirit Link GmbH 2007-2018. All rights reserved.